Management of foreskin conditions

Statement by British Association of Paediatric Urologists


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27. Shelley WB, Shelley ED, Grunenwald MA, Anders TJ, Ramnath A. Long term antibiotic therapy for balanitis xerotica obliterans. J Am Acad dermatol 1999;40:69-72.

28. Ratz JL. Carbon dioxide laser treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans. J Am Acad Dermatol 1984;10:925-8.

29. Fischer Klein C, Rauchenwald M. Triple incision to treat phimosis in children: an alternative to circumcision. BJU Int 2003;92;462.

30. Godbole P, MacKinnon AE. Foreskin meatoplasty and injection of triamcinolone for BXO. Presented at the BAPS conference, Estoril, Portugal, July 2002.

31. DeVries CR, Miller AK, Packer MG. Reduction of paraphimosis with hyaluronidase (see comments ). Urology 1996;48:464-465.

32. Barone JG, Fleisher MH. Treatment of paraphimosis using the ?puncture? technique (see comments). Pediatr Emerg Care 1993;9:298-99.

33. Religious circumcision of male children. Standards of care. British Association of Paediatric Surgeons. 2001

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35. British Medical Association. The law and ethics of male circumcision: guidance for doctors. London: BMA, 2006

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39. Allan CY, Jacqueline PA, Shubhda JH. Caudal epidural block versus other methods of postoperative pain relief for circumcision in boys. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD003005.

40. Brady-Fryer B, Wiebe N, Lander JA. Pain relief for neonatal circumcision. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;18;(4):CD004217.

41. Gunnar MR, Fisch RO, Korsvik S, Donhove JM. The effects of circumcision on serum cortisol and behaviour. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1981;6(3):269-75.

42. Talbert LM, Kraybill EN, Potter HD. Adrenal cortical response to circumcision in the neonate. Obstet Gynecol 1976;48(2):208-10.

43. Poma PA. Painless neonatal circumcision. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1980;18(4):308-9.

44. Anders TF, Chalemian RJ. The effects of circumcision on sleep-wake states in human neonates. Psychosom Med 1974;36(2):174-9.

45. Lander J, Brady-Fryer B, Metcalfe JB, Nazarali S, Muttitt S. Comparison of ring block, dorsal penile nerve block, and topical anesthesia for neonatal circumcision: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1997;278(24):2157-62.

46. Auerbach MR, Scanlon JW. Recurrence of pneumothorax as a possible complication of elective circumcision. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978 ;132(5):583

47. Rawlings DJ, Miller PA, Engel RR. The effect of circumcision on transcutaneous PO2 in term infants. Am J Dis Child 1980;134(7):676-8.

48. Taddio A, Katz J, Ilersich AL, Koren G. Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet. 1997; 349(9052):599-603

49. Campos RG. Rocking and pacifiers: two comforting interventions for heelstick pain. Res Nurs Health. 1994;17(5):321-

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51. Gray L, Watt L, Blass EM. Skin-to-skin contact is analgesic in healthy newborns. Pediatrics. 2000;105(1):e14.

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53. Blass EM, Hoffmeyer LB. Sucrose as an analgesic for newborn infants. Pediatrics. 1991;87(2):215-8.

54. Kaufman GE, Cimo S, Miller LW, Blass EM. An evaluation of the effects of sucrose on neonatal pain with 2 commonly used circumcision methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(3):564-8.

55. Kass FC, Holman JR. Oral glucose solution for analgesia in infant circumcision. J Fam Pract. 2001 Sep;50(9):785-8.

56. Stang HJ, Snellman LW, Condon LM, Conroy MM, Liebo R, Brodersen L, Gunnar MR. Beyond dorsal penile nerve block: a more humane circumcision. Pediatrics. 1997;100(2):E3.

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60. Macke JK. Analgesia for circumcision: effects on newborn behavior and mother/infant interaction. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2001;30(5):507-14.

61. Howard CR, Howard FM, Weitzman ML. Acetaminophen analgesia in neonatal circumcision: the effect on pain. Pediatrics. 1994;93(4):641-6.

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64. Lunn JN. Postoperative analgesia after circumcision. A randomized comparison between caudal analgesia and intramuscular morphine in boys. Anaesthesia. 1979;34(6):552-4.

65. Martin LV. Postoperative analgesia after circumcision in children. Br J Anaesth. 1982;54(12):1263-6.

66. May AE, Wandless J, James RH. Analgesia for circumcision in children. A comparison of caudal bupivacaine and intramuscular buprenorphine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1982;26(4):331-3.

67. Butler-O?Hara M, LeMoine C, Guillet R. Analgesia for neonatal circumcision: a randomized controlled trial of EMLA cream versus dorsal penile nerve block. Pediatrics 1998;101(4):E5.

68. Howard CR, Howard FM, Fortune K, Generelli P, Zolnoun D, Hoopen C, deBlieck E. A randomized controlled trial of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetic cream ( lidocaine and prilocaine) versus penile nerve block for pain relief during circumcision. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181(6):1506-11.

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77. Wiswell TE, Smith FR, Bass JW. Decreased incidence of urinary tract infections in circumcised male infants. Pediatrics 1985;75:901-903.

78. Kaweblum YA, Press S, Kogan L. Circumcision using the Mogen clamp. Clin Pediatr 1984;23:679-82.

79. Fraser IA, Allen MJ, Bagshaw PF, Johnstone M. A randomized trial to assess childhood circumcision with the Plastibell device compared to a conventional dissection technique. Br J Surg 1981;68:593-595.

80. Ozdemir E. Significantly increased complication risks with mass circumcisions. Br J Urol. 1997 Jul;80(1):136-9.

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